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Louis Hottot Biscuit « Le Mythe de Circé » vers 1880-1890 VENDU

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  • N° de Stand: 82 83 et 84 - Allée 1
  • Galerie: MLD Antiquités
  • Siècle: 19ème Siècle
  • Époque/Style: Napoléon III
  • Dimensions: Hauteur 54 cm - Largeur 27 cm - Profondeur 23 cm
  • Matériaux: Porcelaine - Biscuit
  • Signature: Louis Hottot
  • Prix: Nous consulter

Louis Hottot Biscuit « Le Mythe de Circé » vers 1880-1890

Une très jolie et décorative sculpture en faïence dite « biscuit », représentant une jolie jeune femme à l'antique, se tenant sur une terrasse, agrémentée de deux têtes de lion. 

Derrière elle, comme fardeau, un vase Médicis à têtes de bélier avec son intérieur en bronze doré pouvant recevoir un petit bouquet.

Notre sculpture est une représentation de la déesse Circé.

De la qualité dans l’exécution de ce biscuit ou les traits de la jeune femme sont représentés avec beaucoup de finesse. Tous les éléments décoratifs sont traités avec beaucoup d’attention.

Travail français de la fin du XIXeme siècle, portant la signature de Louis Hottot sur la terrasse. Circa 1880-1890. Une variation de ce modele a été présentée par Louis Hottot au Salon de 1897.

Dimensions : Hauteur 54 cm - Largeur 27 cm - Profondeur 23 cm

Louis Hottot : Paris 12 mai 1829 - Neuilly sur Seine 1905.

Les personnages et scènes orientalistes dominent la production de ce sculpteur qui participe au Salon, de 1885 à 1898. On remarque une statuette en bronze, Fille d’Egypte (1885), Phoébé et Echo (1888), Alexandre III, empereur de Russie à cheval (1891), Appel à la danse à Memphis (1892), Circé, statuette (1897), etc. Paris les oeuvres tirées en bronze, on peut signaler Jeune Harpiste orientale, Napoléon 1er, 67cm, tête italienne, buste de jeune fille, etc. Quelques sujets ont été édités en composition.

Circé :

Dans la mythologie grecque, Circé (en grec ancien Κίρκη / Kírkê, « oiseau de proie ») est une magicienne très puissante, qualifiée par Homère de πολυφάρμακος / poluphármakos, c'est-à-dire « particulièrement experte en de multiples drogues ou poisons, propres à opérer des métamorphoses ». Elle est connue tantôt comme une sorcière, tantôt comme une enchanteresse.

Mythes :

Mythe grec : Circé est la fille d’Hélios (le Soleil) et de l’Océanide Perséis, sœur d’Éétès et de Pasiphaé.

Homère, Hésiode et Cicéron la considèrent, de par sa naissance, comme une déesse à part entière, ce qui ne semble pas avoir été le cas du reste de sa parentèle.

Elle apparaît principalement au chant X de l’Odyssée : elle habite dans l’île d’Ééa, dans un palais situé au milieu d’une clairière, entouré de loups et de lions, autrefois des hommes qu'a ensorcelés Circé. C’est là qu’elle a autrefois, si on en croit les récits argonautiques, recueilli et purifié Jason et Médée (sa nièce, fille d’Éétès) après le meurtre d’Absyrtos.

Quand Ulysse et ses compagnons abordent l’île, vingt-deux d’entre eux, menés par Euryloque, se laissent attirer jusqu’au palais par une voix harmonieuse. La magicienne les accueille et leur offre un cycéon, breuvage composé de gruau d’orge, de miel vert, de fromage et de vin de Pramnos auquel elle ajoute une drogue funeste. Dès qu’ils ont bu, elle les transforme d’un coup de baguette en porcs. Euryloque, resté dehors, court avertir Ulysse, qui part à la recherche de Circé. Le dieu Hermès lui apparaît alors sous la forme d’un beau jeune homme tenant un roseau d’or. Le dieu Hermès à la baguette d’or lui remet l’herbe « moly » (μῶλυ / mỗlu) et lui donne des instructions pour triompher de Circé. Quand il arrive chez la magicienne, celle-ci lui offre le cycéon, mais elle échoue à le transformer d’un coup de baguette. Ulysse tire son épée ; apeurée, Circé lui offre de partager son lit. Là encore, Ulysse, suivant les recommandations d’Hermès, demande à la magicienne de jurer par « le grand serment des dieux » qu’elle ne cherchera plus à lui faire de mal. Cela fait, Ulysse et Circé s’unissent, puis elle rend aux compagnons leur apparence humaine. Un an s'écoule. Elle aide enfin le héros et son équipage à préparer leur départ, en leur conseillant d'aller consulter le devin Tirésias aux Enfers.

De ses amours avec Ulysse, elle aurait conçu plusieurs enfants (leur nombre et leur nom divergent beaucoup selon les traditions) : Télégonos, Latinos, Agrios, Cassiphoné, Nausinoos, Nausithoos, etc. On prête en outre à Circé bon nombre d’enfants nés de liaisons avec plusieurs Olympiens. Ainsi, dans les Dionysiaques, Nonnos de Panopolis lui attribue-t-il la maternité de Phaunos, l’équivalent du Faunus latin, issu de ses amours avec Poséidon.

Mythe romain : Le logographe grec Denys de Milet fait de Circé la fille d’Éétès et d’Hécate, déesse lunaire de la sorcellerie qui préside aux incantations. Toujours selon lui, elle épouse le roi des Sarmates, qu’elle empoisonne. Chassée une première fois par ses sujets, elle fuit sur une île déserte, ou selon d’autres, vers l’Italie où elle fonde Circaeum, aujourd'hui Monte Circeo, dans le Latium. C'est ainsi que les auteurs romains la relient à leur propre mythologie. Chez Ovide, elle se distingue alors par de nombreuses actions malfaisantes, transformant par exemple Scylla en monstre marin par jalousie, et le roi Picus en pivert.

Au Moyen-Âge on la retrouve dans les légendes populaires d’Italie, mêlée à la figure d’Hérodiade sous le nom d’Aradia, fille de Diane et de Lucifer.

 

French Bisque Porcelain « The Magic Goddess Circe » signed by Louis Hottot Circa 1890

Gorgeous ornamental bisque porcelain sculpture representing an young antique woman, being held on a terrace decorated with two lion heads. 

Behind her, as burden, a Medicis vase with a ram heads with its inside bronze  being able to receive a small bouquet.

It is a representation of The Magic Goddess Circe.

Fine quality in the execution of this bisque porcelain, the lines of the young woman are represented with a lot of sharpness. All the ornamental elements are handled with sharpness.

Circa 1880-1890. French late 19th century work signed by Louis Hottot. One of this sculpture was in The French Salon in 1897.

Measures : 21.25 in H – 10.62 in W - 9.05 in D

Louis Hottot is a French artist, best known for his bronze sculpture, some done in the oriental theme. He was born in 1829 and died in 1905.

Louis Hottot (1834-1905) is considered one of the finest French sculptors of the 19th century. Though little is known about the early days of his career, in 1885, at the age of 55, Louis Hottot made the biggest step toward success as an artist, participating in the prestigious Sociétaire des Artistes, Français. During this time, Hottot presented to the Salon one to two works each year from 1892 to 1898. Eastern characters and scenes were the dominant subject matter of Hottot’s sculptural works and became his trademark. Today, his interpretations of exotic peoples and events, coupled with his great skill, have made his works highly desirable.

Circe :

Circe (/ˈsɜːrsiː/; (Greek: Κίρκη Kírkē pronounced [kírkɛ͜ɛ]) is a goddess of magic (or sometimes a nymph, witch, enchantress or sorceress) in Greek mythology. By most accounts, she was the daughter of the sungod Helios, and Perse, an Oceanid. Her brothers were Aeetes, keeper of the Golden Fleece, and Perses. Her sister was Pasiphaë, the wife of King Minos and mother of the Minotaur.[1] Other accounts make her the daughter of Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft.

Circe was renowned for her vast knowledge of potions and herbs. Through the use of these and a magic wand or a staff, she transformed her enemies, or those who offended her, into animals. Some say she was exiled to the solitary island of Aeaea by her subjects and her father Helios for killing her husband, the prince of Colchis. Later traditions tell of her leaving or even destroying the island and moving to Italy, where she was identified with Cape Circeo.

Homer's Odyssey : In Homer's Odyssey, Circe is described as living in a mansion that stands in the middle of a clearing in a dense wood. Around the house prowled strangely docile lions and wolves, the drugged victims of her magic; they were not dangerous, and fawned on all newcomers. Circe worked at a huge loom. She invited Odysseus' crew to a feast of familiar food, a pottage of cheese and meal, sweetened with honey and laced with wine, but also laced with one of her magical potions and drunk from an enchanted cup. Thus so she turned them all into swine with her magic wand or staff after they gorged themselves on it. Only drunken Eurylochus, suspecting treachery from the outset, escaped to warn Odysseus and the others who had stayed behind at the ship. Odysseus set out to rescue his men, but was intercepted by the messenger god, Hermes, who had been sent by Athena. Hermes told Odysseus to use the holy herb moly to protect himself from Circe's wizardry and, having resisted it, to draw his sword and act as if he were to going to attack her. From there, Circe would ask him to bed, but Hermes advised caution, for even there the goddess would be treacherous. She would take his manhood unless he had her swear by the names of the gods that she would not.

Odysseus followed Hermes' advice, freeing his men and then remained on the island for one year, feasting and drinking wine. According to Homer, Circe suggested two alternative routes to Odysseus to return to Ithaca: toward Planctae, the "Wandering Rocks", or passing between the dangerous Scylla and the whirlpool-like Charybdis, conventionally identified with the Strait of Messina. She also advised Odysseus to go to the Underworld and gave him directions.

Later Greek literature : Towards the end of Hesiod's Theogony (1011ff.), it is stated that Circe bore Odysseus three sons: Ardeas or Agrius (otherwise unknown); Latinus; and Telegonus, who ruled over the Tyrsenoi, that is the Etruscans. The Telegony (Τηλεγόνεια), an epic now lost, relates the later history of the last of these. Circe eventually informed him who his absent father was and, when he set out to find Odysseus, gave him a poisoned spear. With this he killed his father unknowingly. Telegonus then brought back his father's corpse, together with Penelope and Odysseus' other son Telemachus, to Aeaea. After burying Odysseus, Circe made the others immortal. According to Lycophron's Alexandra (808) and John Tzetzes' scholia on the poem (795 - 808), however, Circe used magical herbs to bring Odysseus back to life after he had been killed by Telegonus. Odysseus then gave Telemachus to Circe's daughter Cassiphone in marriage. Some time later, Telemachus had a quarrel with his mother-in-law and killed her; Cassiphone then killed Telemachus to avenge her mother's death. On hearing of this, Odysseus died of grief.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus (1.72.5) cites Xenagoras, the second century BC historian, as claiming that Odysseus and Circe had three sons: Rhomus, Anteias, and Ardeias, who respectively founded three cities called by their names: Rome, Antium, and Ardea. In a very late Alexandrian epic from the 5th century AD, the Dionysiaca of Nonnus, her son by Poseidon is mentioned under the name of Phaunos.

In the 3rd century BC epic, the Argonautica, Apollonius Rhodius relates that Circe purified the Argonauts for the death of Absyrtus, maybe reflecting an early tradition. In this poem, the animals that surround her are not former lovers transformed but primeval ‘beasts, not resembling the beasts of the wild, nor yet like men in body, but with a medley of limbs.’

Three ancient plays about Circe have been lost: the work of the tragedian Aeschylus and of the 4th century BC comic dramatists Ephippus of Athens and Anaxilas. The first told the story of Odysseus' encounter with Circe. Vase paintings from the period suggest that Odysseus' half-transformed animal-men formed the chorus in place of the usual Satyrs. Fragments of Anaxilas also mention the transformation and one of the characters complains of the impossibility of scratching his face now that he is a pig.

Latin literature : The theme of turning men into a variety of animals was elaborated by later writers, especially in Latin. In the Aeneid, Aeneas skirts the Italian island where Circe now dwells, and hears the cries of her many victims, who now number more than the pigs of earlier accounts:

The roars of lions that refuse the chain,

The grunts of bristled boars, and groans of bears,

And herds of howling wolves that stun the sailors' ears.

Ovid's Metamorphoses collects more transformation stories in its 14th book. The fourth episode covers Circe's encounter with Ulysses (lines 242-307). The first episode in that book deals with the story of Glaucus and Scylla, in which the enamoured sea-god seeks a love filtre to win Scylla's love, only to have the sorceress fall in love with him. When she is unsuccessful, she takes revenge on her rival by turning Scylla into a monster (lines 1-74). The story of the Latin king Picus is told in the fifth episode (and also alluded to in the Aeneid). Circe fell in love with him too; when he preferred to remain faithful to his wife Canens, she turned him into a woodpecker (lines 308-440).

The gens Mamilia - described by Titus Livius as one of the most distinguished families of Latium - claimed descent from Mamilia, a granddaughter of Odysseus and Circe through Telegonus. One of the most well known of them was Octavius Mamilius (died 498 BC), princeps of Tusculum and son-in-law of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus the seventh and last king of Rome.

Coordonnées

  • Galerie n° : 82, 83 & 84 - Allée 1
  • Nom : Debono
  • Prénom : Laurence & Marc
  • Téléphone Portable : +33 (0)6 07 57 42 55
  • Téléphone Fixe : +33 (0)1 40 10 83 63

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